Initial root canal therapy and implant placement are both common treatment modalities, and, as such, prognostic factors that influence the treatment outcomes of these two restorations should be identified. In a retrospective chart review, 196 implant restorations and 196 matched initial nonsurgical root canal treated (NSRCT) teeth in patients were evaluated for four possible outcomes-success, survival, survival with intervention, and failure. Results showed that smokers had fewer successes and more failures in both groups (p = 0.0001), whereas NSRCT outcomes were affected by periradicular periodontitis (p = 0.001), post placement (p = 0.013), and overfilling (p = 0.003). Outcomes for both groups were not significantly affected by diabetes, age, or gender. Implant group outcomes were not affected by implant length (from 10 to 16 mm), diameter (from 3.25 to 5.5 mm), or an adjacent endodontically treated tooth, nor were NSRCT outcomes affected by the number of appointments for the procedure.
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