The role of histamine as a mediator of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was examined in intact anesthetized dogs. Antagonism of histamine vasoconstrictor (H1) receptors with a classic antihistaminic drug (chlorpheniramine) failed to prevent or modify the pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia (10% O2). Blockade of histamine vasodilator (H2) receptors with a newly synthesized blocking agent (metiamide) potentiated the vasoconstriction induced by hypoxia and prevented the normal increase in heart rate. Combined H1 and H2 receptor blockade also did not prevent or reduce the hypoxic pulmonary pressor response, although it did effectively abolish the cardiovascular actions of infused histamine. In other dogs, histamine infused (3.6 μg/kg per min) during hypoxia attenuated the pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by hypoxia. The results imply that, in the dog, histamine does not mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. However, histamine does appear to be released during hypoxia, and it may play a role in modulating the pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia by opposing the hypoxia induced vasoconstriction. The results also imply that histamine may be responsible for the increase in heart rate during hypoxia.