A new approach to high speed, comprehensive online dual gradient elution 2DLC (LC × LC) based on the use of ultra-fast, high temperature gradient elution reversed phase chromatography is described. Entirely conventional gradient elution instrumentation and columns are assembled in a system which develops a total peak capacity of about 900 in 25 min; this is equivalent to roughly one peak/2 s. Each second dimension gradient is done in a cycle time of 21 s and the peak retention times measured for a set of twenty six indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) derivatives are reproducible to 0.2 s. Each peak eluting from the first dimension column is sampled at least twice across its width, as the corresponding peaks on the second dimension column appear in two or three consecutive second dimension chromatograms, clearly indicating that there is little loss in the resolution gained in the first dimension separation. Application to the separation of the low molecular weight components of wild-type and mutant maize seedlings indicates the presence of about 100 peaks on a timescale of 25 min. Compelling illustrations of the analytical potential of fast, high temperature 2DLC are evident in the clear presence of nine distinct peaks in a single second dimension chromatogram from a single quite narrow first dimension peak, and the great power of 2DLC to solve the "analytic dynamic range" problem inherent in the measurement of small peaks that are neighbors to a gigantic peak.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the National Institutes of Health (GM 54585) and the University of Minnesota for financial support, and Systec Inc. for column heating equipment.
- High temperature HPLC
- Peak capacity
- Two-dimensional HPLC
- Ultra-fast gradient elution HPLC