[Fe II] bubbles in the young planetary nebula Hubble 12

C. A. Welch, A. Frank, Judith L. Pipher, W. J. Forrest, Charles E. Woodward

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We have obtained narrowband images of the young planetary nebula Hubble 12 showing [Fe II] line emission in bipolar bubbles near the core. Bright [Fe II] emission is strong evidence for shocks, suggesting the presence of a high-velocity wind emanating from the central star. We compare our data to previously published images of Hubble 12 - finding similar structures in hydrogen recombination and free-free emission - and we propose three possible interpretations of the data: that the bubbles indicate the inner shock of the fast wind, that the [Fe II) emission is evidence of the outer shock of an episodic wind, or that the emission is cooling line radiation from a photodissociation region. We argue that the first two interpretations are more likely, since the [Fe II] emission must be shock excited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)L69-L72
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1 PART 2
StatePublished - Sep 1 1999


  • ISM
  • Jets and outflows planetary nebulae: Individual (Hb 12)
  • Stars: Evolution

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