The spectrum of biological rhythms is extended far beyond circadians, circannuals, and ultradians, such as 1.5-hourly melatonin and 8-hourly endothelin-1 (ET-1) rhythms by statistics of natality, growth, morbidity, and mortality, some covering decades or centuries on millions of individuals. These reveal infradian cycles to be aligned with half-weekly rhythms in ET-1, weekly and half-yearly ones in melatonin, and even longer - about 50-, about 20-, and about 10-year cycles found in birth statistics. About daily, weekly, yearly, and ten-yearly patterns are also found in mortality from myocardial infarctions; the 10-yearly ones are also in heart rate and its variability; in steroid excretion, an aspect of resistance, for example, to bacteria; and in the genetic changes of the bacteria themselves. Automatic physiological measurements cover years and, in one case, cover a decade; the latter reveal an about 10-year (circadecennial) cycle. ECGs, covering months beat-to-beat, reveal circaseptans, gaining prominence in response to magnetic storms or after coronary artery bypass grafting. A spectrum including cycles from fractions of 1 Hz to circasemicentennians is just one element in biological time structures, chronomes. Chaos, trends, and any unresolved variability are the second to fourth elements of chronomes. Intermodulations, feedsidewards, account for rhythmically and thus predictably recurring quantitative differences and even for opposite treatment effects of the same total dose(s) of (1) immunomodulators inhibiting or stimulating DNA labeling of bone in health or speeding up versus slowing down a malignant growth and thus shortening or lengthening survival time, or (2) raising or lowering blood pressure or heart rate in the vascular aspect of the body's defense. Latitude-dependent competing photic and nonphotic solar effects upon the pineal are gauged by alternating yearly (by daylight) and half-yearly (by night) signatures of circulating melatonin at middle latitudes and by half-yearly signatures at noon near the pole. These many (including novel near 10-yearly) changes, for example, in 17-ketosteroid excretion, heart rate, heart rate variability, and myocardial infarction in us and those galactic, solar, and geophysical ones around us have their own special signatures and contribute to a cosmo-vasculo-immunity and, if that fails, to a cosmo(immuno?) pathology.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||28|
|Journal||Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2000|