Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis is a specific histologic manifestation of hepatitis B virus infection consisting of periportal fibrosis, hepatocyte ballooning, cholestasis, a relatively scant inflammatory infiltrate, and marked overexpression of hepatitis B viral antigens in hepatocytes. Until recently, fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis had been reported only in recipients of liver allografts. In this report, we present two patients in whom this lesion developed following renal transplantation. Both patients had previous liver biopsies showing relatively mild histologic changes. In one patient, the lesion developed early after retransplantation, during the period of maximal immunosuppression. However, in the second patient this lesion developed after withdrawal of immunosuppression. In both cases, death occurred within a few months because of progressive liver disease. Since this lesion can develop in 'relatively healthy' hepatitis B carriers following transplantation of organs other than liver, these patients should have careful monitoring of their liver disease. Moreover, since the disease may progress despite withdrawal of immunosuppression, these patients would clearly benefit from the development of more effective therapies for posttransplant hepatitis B.