First images from the focusing optics x-ray solar imager

Säm Krucker, Steven Christe, Lindsay Glesener, Shin Nosuke Ishikawa, Brian Ramsey, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin Watanabe, Shinya Saito, Mikhail Gubarev, Kiranmayee Kilaru, Hiroyasu Tajima, Takaaki Tanaka, Paul Turin, Stephen McBride, David Glaser, Jose Fermin, Stephen White, Robert Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2 producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL32
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


  • Sun: X-rays gamma rays
  • Sun: corona
  • Sun: flares
  • instrumentation: miscellaneous


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