Free-Air Exposure Systems to scale up ozone research to mature trees

D. F. Karnosky, H. Werner, T. Holopainen, K. Percy, T. Oksanen, E. Oksanen, C. Heerdt, P. Fabian, J. Nagy, W. Heilman, R. Cox, N. Nelson, R. Matyssek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


Because seedlings and mature trees do not necessarily respond similarly to O3 stress, it is critically important that exposure systems be developed that allow exposure of seedlings through to mature trees. Here we describe three different O3 Free-Air Exposure Systems that have been used successfully for exposure at all growth stages. These systems of spatially uniform O3 release have been shown to provide reliable O3 exposure with minimal, if any, impact on the microclimate. This methodology offers a welcome alternative to chamber studies which had severe space constraints precluding stand or community-level studies and substantial chamber effects on the microclimate and, hence physiological tree performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-190
Number of pages10
JournalPlant Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • European beech (Fagus sylvatica)
  • European white birch (Betula pendula)
  • Free-air
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Mature trees
  • Norway spruce (Picea abies)
  • Ozone
  • Paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
  • Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
  • Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)

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