Executive function (EF) refers to the set of neurocognitive skills involved in goal-directed problem solving, including working memory, inhibitory control, and set flexibility/tilt. EF depends importantly upon neural networks involving prefrontal cortex and continues to improve into early adulthood, although major advances in EF occur during the preschool period. Inter-individual differences in EF are a key predictor of long-term cognitive and social developmental outcomes. Research suggests that EF is influenced by both distal and proximal factors in development (e.g., socio-economic status, culture, language, parental caregiving, gene-environment interactions and sleep). Importantly, EF can be trained with corresponding changes to brain structure and function. In this chapter, we review the structure of the EF, including "Hot EF" (EF in emotionally significant contexts), age-related changes, atypical development, measurement issues, theories of underlying mechanisms, outcomes associated with the EF, influences on the EF development, and the recent emergence of studies on the effects of its training.
|Translated title of the contribution||From executive function to executive functions: A neurocognitive and socio-affective synthesis in cognitive neurosciences and developmental psychology|
|Number of pages||43|
|Journal||ANAE - Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant|
|State||Published - Jun 2019|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 A.N.A.E.. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Cognitive control
- Cognitive flexibility
- Executive function
- Inhibitory control
- Prefrontal cortex
- Working memory