Each year, a vast number of individuals are infected with the endemic fungi. An expanding population, along with further land development in endemic areas, will likely continue to place individuals at risk for exposure to these organisms. A high index of suspicion may be required to diagnose histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or coccidioidomycosis, particularly for patients who do not reside in endemic areas. Although the majority of patients with histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis experience self-limited infections, treatment is necessary for patients with severe pneumonitis as well as various forms of chronic pulmonary and disseminated infections. The newer azole agents - itraconazole and fluconazole - are useful in the treatment of these infections and have provided alternatives to long-term therapy with amphotericin B for many patients.