GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with increased expression in anergic CD4+ T cells. The expression of GRAIL has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for the induction of T cell (T) anergy. To date, several subsets of anergic T cells have demonstrated altered interactions with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and perturbed TCR-mediated signaling. The role of GRAIL in mediating these aspects of T cell anergy remains unclear.Weused flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to examine T/APC interactions in GRAIL-expressing T cells. Increased GRAIL expression resulted in reduced T/APC conjugation efficiency as assessed by flow cytometry. Examination of single T/APC conjugates by confocal microscopy revealed altered polarization of polymerized actin and LFA-1 to the T/APC interface. When GRAIL expression was knocked down, actin polarization to the T/APC interface was restored, demonstrating that GRAIL is necessary for alteration of actin cytoskeletal rearrangement under anergizing conditions. Interestingly, proximal TCR signaling including calcium flux and phosphorylation of Vav were not disrupted by expression of GRAIL in CD4+ T cells. In contrast, interrogation of distal signaling events demonstrated significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation in GRAIL-expressing T cells. In sum, GRAIL expression in CD4+ T cells mediates alterations in the actin cytoskeleton during T/APC interactions. Moreover, in this model, our data dissociates proximal T cell signaling events from functional unresponsiveness. These data demonstrate a novel role for GRAIL in modulating T/APC interactions and provide further insight into the cell biology of anergic T cells.