General and Maladaptive Traits in a Five-Factor Framework for DSM-5 in a University Student Sample

Filip de Fruyt, Barbara de Clercq, Marleen de Bolle, Bart Wille, Kristian Markon, Robert F. Krueger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The relationships between two measures proposed to describe personality pathology, that is the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), are examined in an undergraduate sample (N = 240). The NEO inventories are general trait measures, also considered relevant to assess disordered personality, whereas the PID-5 measure is specifically designed to assess pathological personality traits, as conceptualized in the DSM-5 proposal. A structural analysis of the 25 PID-5 traits confirmed the factor structure observed in the U.S. derivation sample, with higher order factors of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. A joint factor analysis of, respectively, the NEO domains and their facets with the PID-5 traits showed that general and maladaptive traits are subsumed under an umbrella of five to six major dimensions that can be interpreted from the perspective of the five-factor model or the Personality Psychopathology Five. Implications for the assessment of personality pathology and the construction of models of psychopathology grounded in personality are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-307
Number of pages13
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2013


  • assessment
  • DSM-5
  • FFM
  • five-factor model
  • general traits
  • NEO-PI-3
  • personality disorders
  • Personality Inventory for DSM-5
  • PID-5
  • Revised NEO Personality Inventory


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