Generation of the e-wave of the electroretinogram in the frog retina

Chester J. Karwoski, Eric A. Newman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The e-wave and a delayed-OFF increase in extracellular K+ concentration are both maximum in the distal half of the inner plexiform layer. These responses also have similar latency, time-course, intensity-dependence, surround properties, and sensitivity to tetrodotoxin. Current source-density analysis of the e-wave reveals a current sink through the proximal retina, a source at the retinal surface, and, in some cases, a weaker source in the mid-retina. These results suggest a model for e-wave generation: delayed-OFF activity in proximal neurons releases K+, which enters Muller cells in the inner plexiform layer; a current exits Muller cells primarily via their endfeet, and the return flow through extracellular space produces the e-wave.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1095-1105
Number of pages11
JournalVision Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1988


  • Current source density analysis
  • Electroretinogram
  • K selective microelectrode
  • Rana pipiens
  • Tetrodotoxin

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