As a supporting primitive of many mobile applications, neighbor discovery identifies nearby devices so that they can exchange information and collaborate in a peer-to-peer manner. To date, discovery schemes trade a long latency for energy efficiency and require a collaborative duty cycle pattern, and thus they are not suitable for interactive mobile applications where a user is unable to configure others' devices. In this article, we propose Acc, which serves as an on-demand generic discovery accelerating middleware for many deterministic neighbor discovery schemes. Acc leverages the discovery capabilities of neighbor devices, supporting both direct and indirect neighbor discoveries. Further, we present a proactive online rendezvous maintenance mechanism, which is used to reduce delays for the detection of leaving of neighbors. Our evaluations show that Acc-assisted discovery schemes reduce latency by up to 51.8% compared to schemes consuming the same amount of energy. More importantly, to prove the real-world value of Acc, we further present and evaluate a Crowd-Alert application where Acc is employed by taxi drivers to accelerate selection of a direction with fewer competing taxis and more potential passengers, based on a 280GB dataset of more than 14,000 taxis in Shenzhen, the most crowded city in China.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported in part by U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) grants CNS 0845994, CNS 1444021, CNS 1525235, CNS-1513719, NSFC 61170247, IBM OCR Fund, and the K. C. Wong Education Foundation of Hong Kong. A preliminary work was presented at ACM SenSys 2012 [Zhang et al. 2012].
- Mobile applications
- Neighbor discovery