Unbalanced dietary habits and gut dysmotility are causative factors in metabolic and functional gut disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and constipation. Reduction in luminal butyrate synthesis is known to be associated with gut dysbioses, and studies have suggested that restoring butyrate formation in the colon may improve gut health. In contrast, shifts in different types of gut microbiota may inhibit luminal butyrate synthesis, requiring different treatments to restore colonic bacterial butyrate synthesis. We investigated the influence of high-fat diets (HFD) and low-fiber diets (LFD), and loperamide (LPM) administration, on key bacteria and genes involved in reduction of butyrate synthesis in mice. MiSeq-based microbiota analysis and HiSeq-based differential gene analysis indicated that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in butyrate metabolism in each treatment. Dietary modulation depleted butyrate kinase and phosphate butyryl transferase by decreasing members of the Bacteroidales and Parabacteroides. The HFD also depleted genes involved in succinate synthesis by decreasing Lactobacillus. The LFD and LPM treatments depleted genes involved in crotonoyl-CoA synthesis by decreasing Roseburia and Oscilllibacter. Taken together, our results suggest that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in gut dysbiosis, and that selected treatments may be needed depending on the cause of gut dysfunction.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This research was supported by Traditional Culture Convergence Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2016M3C1B5907205), and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A6A1A03012862). We are grateful to Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute (SARI) in Jeju National University for providing the experimental facilities.
- Butyrate synthesis
- Gut dysbiosis
- Gut microbiota