Numerous factors that promote movement of macromolecules in and out of the nucleus have now been identified. These include both soluble cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic proteins and proteins of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Genetic analyses of the nuclear transport process in the model organism, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have revealed remarkable conservation of all of these factors. In addition, important clues as to how these factors promote the unique bidirectional movement across the NPC have emerged from studies of yeast. We summarize the characterization and genetic interactions of the soluble transport factors and present data to illustrate how genetic experiments can be used to further define the import and export pathways.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the American Cancer Society, the Human Frontiers Science Program, the American Heart Association, the Deutsche Forschungs-gemeinschaft, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, and the Claudia Adams Barr Foundation.