Monitoring of influenza A virus (IAV) was conducted in wild bird species in central Thailand. Four IAV subtype H12N1 strains were isolated from a watercock (order Gruiformes, family Rallidae) (n = 1) and lesser whistling ducks (order Anseriformes, family Anatidae) (n = 3). All H12N1 viruses were characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight genes of the Thai H12N1 viruses indicated that they are most closely related to the Eurasian strains. Analysis of the HA gene revealed the strains to be of low pathogenicity. This study is the first to report the circulation of IAV subtype H12N1 in Thailand and to describe the genetic characteristics of H12N1 in Eurasia. Moreover, the genetic information obtained on H12N1 has contributed a new Eurasian strain of H12N1 to the GenBank database.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund, Chulalongkorn University. We would like to thank Chulalongkorn University for its financial support in the Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in Animals, Research Unit and for a Chulalongkorn University Dutsadi Phiphat scholarship to MW. We would also like to thank the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT, Thailand), the National Research University of CHE and the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund (HR1155A) for grant support to AA. We would like to thank Ms. Petra Hirsch and Carol Cardona for reviewing the manuscript.