Genotypically defined lissencephalies show distinct pathologies

Mark S. Forman, Waney Squier, William B. Dobyns, Jeffrey A. Golden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lissencephaly is traditionally divided into 2 distinct pathologic forms: classic (type I) and cobblestone (type II). To date, mutations in 4 genes, LIS1, DCX, RELN, and ARX, have been associated with distinct type I lissencephaly syndromes. Each of these genes has been shown to play a role in normal cell migration, consistent with the presumed pathogenesis of type I lissencephaly. Based on these data, we hypothesized that all forms of radiographically defined type I lissencephaly independent of genotype would be pathologically similar. To test this hypothesis, we examined brains from 16 patients, including 15 lissencephalic patients and one patient with subcortical band heterotopia. Of these 16 patients, 6 had LIS1 deletions, 2 had DCX mutations, and 2 had ARX mutations. In addition, 6 patients had no defined genetic defect, although the patient with subcortical band heterotopia exhibited the same pattern of malformation expected with an XLIS mutation. In all cases, the cortex was thickened; however, the topographic distribution of the cortical pathology varied, ranging from frontal- to occipital-biased pathology to diffuse involvement of the neocortex. Although brains with LIS1 deletions exhibited the classic 4-layer lissencephalic architecture, patients with DCX and ARX mutations each had unique cytoarchitectural findings distinct from LIS1. Furthermore, 2 of the 5 patients with no known genetic defect showed a fourth type of histopathology characterized by a 2-layered cortex. Interestingly, the 2 brains with the fourth type of lissencephaly showed profound brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities. In summary, we identified at least 4 distinct histopathologic subtypes of lissencephaly that stratify with the underlying genetic defect. Based on these data, a new classification for lissencephaly is proposed that incorporates both pathologic and genetic findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)847-857
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
Volume64
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ARX
  • Cell migration
  • LIS1
  • Lissencephaly
  • Miller-Dieker syndrome
  • RELN
  • XLIS

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