While most myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia cases are sporadic, rare familial cases occur and provide some insight into leukemogenesis. The most clearly defined familial cases result from inherited mutations in RUNX1 or CEBPA. Recently, novel germline mutations in GATA2 have been reported. We, therefore, investigated individuals from families with one or more first-degree relatives with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with wild-type RUNX1 and CEBPA, for GATA2 mutations. Screening for other recurrent mutations was also performed. A GATA2 p.Thr354Met mutation was observed in a pedigree in which 2 first-degree cousins developed high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome with monosomy 7. They were also observed to have acquired identical somatic ASXL1 mutations and both died despite stem cell transplantation. These findings confirm that germline GATA2 mutations predispose to familial myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia, and that monosomy 7 and ASXL1 mutations may be recurrent secondary genetic abnormalities triggering overt malignancy in these families.
- Monosomy 7
- Myelodysplastic syndromes