Religiously affiliated providers of social services are becoming increasingly important in the transformation of social welfare policy in the United States. This article focuses on governance issues and challenges facing these small service providers. Using perspectives from the organization and management literatures and examples from prior research, the article makes three general observations. First, predictable patterns of governance exist, depending on the types of structural relationships religiously affiliated agencies have with their religious bases. Second, governance will be affected by particular characteristics of both small and religious organizations. Third, growth presents critical challenges to the ability of these providers to maintain their indigenous religious cultures. Hypotheses are offered to stimulate further research in each of these areas.