Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
*A faculty development grant from the University of Minnesota's College of Liberal Arts supported the preparation of this article during the summer of 1992. An earlier version was presented at the annual meeting of the International Sociological Association Research Committee on Social Stratification in Durham, North Carolina, USA, 8-11 August. Revisions since then benefited from the helpful comments and suggestions of Nan Lin. 1. See Martin King Whyte and William L. Parish, Urban Life in China (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984); Thomas Gold, "After comradeship: personal relations in China since the Cultural Revolution," The China Quarterly, No. 104 (December 1985), pp. 657-675; Mayfair Mei-hui Yang, "The art of social relationships and exchange in China," unpublished doctoral dissertation (University of California at Berkeley, 1986); Andrew G. Walder, Communist Neo-Traditionalism: Work and Authority in Chinese Industry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986). 2. Children of affluent families tended to be assigned jobs in the privileged state sectors because their high-status fathers had betterconnections with the authorities who assignedjobs. See Nan Lin and Yanjie Bian, "Social connections (guanxi) and social resources in the process of status attainment in urban China," paper presented at the Sunbelt International Conference of Social Networks, San Diego, 1989. 3. See descriptions and analyses of the use of guanxi in developing getihu and other types ofprivate businesses in Thomas Gold, "Urban private business and social change," in Deborah Davis and Ezra F. Vogel (eds.), Chinese Society on the Eve of Tiananmen (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), pp. 157-178. 4. Victor Nee, "Social inequalities in reforming state socialism: between redistribution and markets in China," American Sociological Review, No. 56 (1991), pp. 267-282; Victor Nee and Sijin Su, "Institutional change and economic growth in China: the view from the villages," Journal of Asian Studies, No. 49 (1990), pp. 3-25.