Haemophilus parasuis is an early colonizer of the porcine upper respiratory tract and is the etiological agent of Glasser's disease. The factors responsible for H. parasuis colonization and systemic infection are not yet well understood, while prevention and control of Glasser's disease continues to be challenging. Recent studies on innate immunity to H. parasuis have demonstrated that porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) are able to differentially up-regulate several genes related to inflammation and phagocytosis, and several pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced by porcine cells upon exposure to H. parasuis. The susceptibility of H. parasuis strains to phagocytosis by PAMs and the bactericidal effect of complement are influenced by the virulent phenotype of the strains. While non-virulent strains are susceptible to phagocytosis and complement, virulent strains are resistant to both. However, in the presence of specific antibodies against H. parasuis, virulent strains become susceptible to phagocytosis. More information is still needed, though, in order to better understand the host immune responses to H. parasuis. Antimicrobials are commonly used in the swine industry to help treat and control Glasser's disease. Some of the common antimicrobials have been shown to reduce colonization by H. parasuis, which may have implications for disease dynamics, development of effective immune responses and immunomodulation. Here, we provide the current state of research on innate and adaptive immune responses to H. parasuis and discuss the potential effect of enrofloxacin on the development of a protective immune response against H. parasuis infection.
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© 2015 Macedo et al.