Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder that primarily involves the skin and peripheral nervous system. Its population prevalence is approximately 1 in 3000. The condition is usually recognized in early childhood, when pigmentary manifestations emerge. Although NF1 is associated with marked clinical variability, most children affected follow patterns of growth and development within the normal range. Some features of NF1 can be present at birth, but most manifestations emerge with age, necessitating periodic monitoring to address ongoing health and developmental needs and minimize the risk of serious medical complications. In this report, we provide a review of the clinical criteria needed to establish a diagnosis, the inheritance pattern of NF1, its major clinical and developmental manifestations, and guidelines for monitoring and providing intervention to maximize the health and quality of life of a child affected.