Heart rate variability is a predictor of mortality in chronic kidney disease: A report from the CRIC study: CRIC study investigators

Paul E. Drawz, Denise C. Babineau, Carolyn Brecklin, Jiang He, Radhakrishna R. Kallem, Elsayed Z. Soliman, Dawei Xie, Dina Appleby, Amanda H. Anderson, Mahboob Rahman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background/Aims: Low heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A 10-second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals (RMSSD). Results: In 3,245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal [SDNN: hazard rate, HR = 0.96 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.88-1.05); RMSSD: HR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.88-1.07)] or cardiovascular outcomes [SDNN: HR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.13); RMSSD: HR = 1.00 (95% CI 0.90-1.10)]. There was a nonlinear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In a large cohort of patients with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular diseases were associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV measured by RMSSD may be a novel and independent risk factor for mortality in CKD patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)517-528
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
Volume38
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2014

Keywords

  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Chronic renal insufficiency
  • Electrocardiography
  • Mortality

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