There is a growing population of transplant survivors receiving both a solid organ transplantation (SOT) and a hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This group remains underreported and not well described. We conducted a single-center retrospective study aimed at assessing safety and long-term survival outcomes of 40 patients receiving both HCT and SOT at the University of Minnesota. Twenty-seven patients underwent HCT followed by SOT (13 kidney, 10 lung, 2 liver, 1 heart, 1 heart/kidney) with a median age of 40 years (range, 5 to 72) at the time of SOT at a median of 88 months (range, 24 to 302) following the HCT. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival (OS) from the SOT was 93%, 76%, and 49%, respectively, with only 4 organ failures reported. Thirteen other patients received a HCT following a prior kidney (n = 8), liver (n = 4), or pancreas/kidney (n = 1) SOT with a median age of 42 years (range, 3 to 66) at the time of the HCT and a median 154 months (range, 1 to 304) from the SOT. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year OS from HCT were 46%, 46%, and 17% respectively. In patients receiving SOT followed by HCT, survival outcomes were better in kidney transplant recipients and patients subsequently requiring an autologous rather than an allogeneic HCT. There were no HCT engraftment failures. Our findings show that in a select patient population, undergoing a second transplant at a specialized center can lead to favorable outcomes with long-term survival and low incidence of graft rejection, organ failure, and malignant disease relapse. A large-scale study is needed to determine the incidence and risk factors preferred for a successful subsequent SOT or HCT. Those studies are crucial to further guide selection and management of patients who would benefit most from a second transplant.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by NIH grant P30 CA77598 utilizing the Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core of the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health Award Number UL1TR002494. We would like to acknowledge Michael Franklin, MS, for assistance in editing this manuscript.
- Hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Long-term complications
- Organ failure
- Solid organ transplantation