Heritability of MMPI Harris-Lingoes and subtle-obvious subscales in twins reared apart

David L. DiLalla, Irving I Gottesman, Gregory Carey, Thomas J. Bouchard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


A large sample of identical and fraternal twins who had been reared apart was used to examine the genetic and environmental architecture of the MMPI Subtle-Obvious and Harris-Lingoes subscales. Univariate genetic analyses indicated significant heritability for all 28 of the Harris-Lingoes subscales (estimates ranged from .23 to .61), all five Obvious subscales (estimates ranged from .37 to .56) and four of the five Subtle subscales (estimates ranged from .27 to .35). Two randomly constructed scales were analyzed as controls; neither of these scales showed significant heritability. Exploratory correlational findings suggested that three of the Wiener-Harmon Subtle subscales may tap aspects of psychological health, naivete, or repression. Ma-S may come closest to Wiener and Harmon's intent. Although they apparently diverge from their original purpose, it may be too early to abandon the "low face valid items" of the Subtle subscales.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)353-366
Number of pages14
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1999


  • Harris-Lingoes
  • Heritabilility
  • MMPI
  • Subtle-Obvious
  • Twins reared apart

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Heritability of MMPI Harris-Lingoes and subtle-obvious subscales in twins reared apart'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this