High-resolution physically ordered gene maps for equine homologs of human chromosome 5 (HSA5), viz., horse chromosomes 14 and 21 (ECA14 and ECA21), were generated by adding 179 new loci (131 gene-specific and 48 microsatellites) to the existing maps of the two chromosomes. The loci were mapped primarily by genotyping on a 5000-rad horse × hamster radiation hybrid panel, of which 28 were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The approximately fivefold increase in the number of mapped markers on the two chromosomes improves the average resolution of the map to 1 marker/0.9 Mb. The improved resolution is vital for rapid chromosomal localization of traits of interest on these chromosomes and for facilitating candidate gene searches. The comparative gene mapping data on ECA14 and ECA21 finely align the chromosomes to sequence/gene maps of a range of evolutionarily distantly related species. It also demonstrates that compared to ECA14, the ECA21 segment corresponding to HSA5 is a more conserved region because of preserved gene order in a larger number of and more diverse species. Further, comparison of ECA14 and the distal three-quarters region of ECA21 with corresponding chromosomal segments in 50 species belonging to 11 mammalian orders provides a broad overview of the evolution of these segments in individual orders from the putative ancestral chromosomal configuration. Of particular interest is the identification and precise demarcation of equid/Perissodactyl-specific features that for the first time clearly distinguish the origins of ECA14 and ECA21 from similar-looking status in the Cetartiodactyls.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was funded by grants from the Texas Higher Education Board (ATP 000517-0306-2003 to B.P.C.), NRICGP/USDA Grant 2003-03687 (B.P.C.), the Texas Equine Research Foundation (B.P.C.), the Link Endowment (B.P.C.), and the Dorothy Russell Havemeyer Foundation. Additional support was available from the USDA-NRSP-8 Coordinators Fund and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NLM (A.A.S., R.A.).
- Chromosome evolution
- Comparative map
- Gene mapping
- Radiation hybrid map