Histologic evaluation of bone-implant contact of immediately loaded transitional implants after 6 to 27 months

Stuart J. Froum, Harel Simon, Sang Choon Cho, Nicholas Elian, Michael D. Rohrer, Dennis P. Tarnow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Purpose: Transitional implants (TIs) were developed as a method of providing fixed provisional restorations for the implant patient who wishes to avoid removable temporary restorations during implant healing. Success of TIs depends on achieving sufficient osseointegrated bone-to-implant contact (BIC) during the provisional prosthesis phase. To date, little data are available on the degree of BIC of these implants in function. The purpose of this study was to histologically evaluate the BIC of TIs following various periods of loading. Materials and Methods: Histologic analysis of 33 immediately loaded implants from 21 patients was performed. All TIs had turned machined surfaces and were made of commercially pure titanium (grade 1). These transitional implants were in function for an average of 10.8 months (range: 6 to 27 months). Before the definitive restoration was provided, all of the TIs were removed with trephine drills and sent for hard tissue histomorphometric analysis. Results: The average percentage of BIC was 52.9% ± 13.81% (range 25.1% to 83%). Discussion: Although TIs are traditionally removed when the definitive implants are restored, the BIC and clinical integration of the TIs in the present study may suggest a change in TI protocol. Studies are indicated to examine long-term use of TIs as sole support or in conjunction with definitive implants in definitive implant-supported restorations. Conclusion: The percentage of BIC achieved with TIs was similar to that documented in the literature for conventional turned, machine-surfaced implants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-60
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2005


  • Bone-to-implant contact
  • Immediate loading
  • Implant surfaces
  • Transitional implants


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