Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder accounts for ∼5% of all cancer deaths in humans. The large majority of tumors are superficial at diagnosis and, after local surgical therapy, have a high rate of local recurrence and progression. Current treatments extend time to recurrence but do not alter disease survival. The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumoricidal potential of combining the apoptosis-inducing protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) against TRAIL-resistant bladder tumor cells. Pretreatment with HDACi at nontoxic doses, followed by incubation with TRAIL, resulted in a marked increase in TRAIL-induced apoptosis of T24 cells but showed no significant increase in toxicity to SV40 immortalized normal human uroepithelial cell-1. HDAC inhibition, especially with sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, led to increased TRAIL-R2 gene transcription that correlated with increased TRAIL-R2 surface expression. The increased TRAIL-R2 levels also resulted in accelerated death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation, caspase activation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which all contributed to the increase in tumor cell death. Collectively, these results show the therapeutic potential of combining HDAC inhibition with TRAIL as an alternative treatment for bladder cancer.