Histoplasmosis Infections Worldwide: Thinking Outside of the Ohio River Valley

Nathan C. Bahr, Spinello Antinori, L. Joseph Wheat, George A. Sarosi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations


In the USA, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many US physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic, reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide. While our knowledge of areas in which histoplasmosis is endemic has improved, it is still incomplete. Our contention is that physicians should consider histoplasmosis with the right constellations of symptoms in any febrile patient with immune suppression, regardless of geographic location or travel history.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)70-80
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Tropical Medicine Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015


  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Biologic drugs
  • H. capsulatum var. duboisii
  • Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Immunosuppression
  • Infectious diseases, emerging, travelers
  • Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis
  • Pulmonary fungal infections

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