History of Cardiovascular Disease, Intensive Lifestyle Intervention, and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the Look AHEAD Trial

Look AHEAD Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To examine the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial randomized 5,145 participants with type 2 diabetes and overweight/obesity to a ILI or diabetes support and education. Although the primary outcome did not differ between the groups, there was suggestive evidence of heterogeneity for prespecified baseline CVD history subgroups (interaction P = 0.063). Event rates were higher in the ILI group among those with a CVD history (hazard ratio 1.13 [95% CI: 0.90-1.41]) and lower among those without CVD (hazard ratio 0.86 [95% CI: 0.72-1.02]). Methods: This study conducted post hoc analyses of the rates of the primary composite outcome and components, adjudicated cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and hospitalization for angina, as well as three secondary composite cardiovascular outcomes. Results: Interaction P values for the primary and two secondary composites were similar (0.060-0.064). Of components, the interaction was significant for nonfatal MI (P = 0.035). This interaction was not due to confounding by baseline variables, different intervention responses for weight loss and physical fitness, or hypoglycemic events. In those with a CVD history, statin use was high and similar by group. In those without a CVD history, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher (P = 0.003) and statin use was lower (P ≤ 0.001) in the ILI group. Conclusions: Intervention response heterogeneity was significant for nonfatal MI. Response heterogeneity may need consideration in a CVD-outcome trial design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-258
Number of pages12
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
agencies: This research was funded by the NIH through cooperative agreements with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK): DK57136, DK57149, DK56990, DK57177, DK57171, DK57151, DK57182, DK57131, DK57002, DK57078, DK57154, DK57178, DK57219, DK57008, DK57135, and DK56992. Additional funding was provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute of Nursing Research, the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the NIH Office of Research on Women?s Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIDDK. The Indian Health Service provided personnel, medical oversight, and use of facilities. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Indian Health Service or the other funding sources. Additional support was received from The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Bayview General Clinical Research Center (M01RR02719); the Massachusetts General Hospital Mallinckrodt General Clinical Research Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Clinical Research Center (M01RR01066); the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (RR025758-04); the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center General Clinical Research Center (M01RR00051) and Clinical Nutrition Research Unit (P30 DK48520); the University of Tennessee at Memphis General Clinical Research Center (M01RR0021140); the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center (M01RR000056) and the Clinical and Translational Research Center, funded by Clinical and Translational Science Award UL1 RR 024153 and NIH grant DK 046204; the US Department of Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System Medical Research Service; and the Frederic C. Bartter General Clinical Research Center (M01RR01346). The following organizations have committed to making major contributions to Look AHEAD: FedEx Corporation; Health Management Resources; LifeScan, Inc., a Johnson & Johnson Company; OPTIFAST of Nestle HealthCare Nutrition, Inc.; Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.; Abbott Nutrition; and Slim-Fast brand of Unilever, North America.Coauthors George Blackburn, Frederick L. Brancati, and Abbas E. Kitabchi died during the production of this work. Some of the information contained herein was derived from data provided by the Bureau of Vital Statistics, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Look AHEAD data may be requested from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Central Repository (https://repository.niddk.nih.gov/studies/look-ahead). In addition to data sets, the Central Repository makes available the study protocol, forms, summary statistics, and data dictionary.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Obesity Society

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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