HIV-1 subtype diversity in Minnesota

Tracy L. Sides, Omobosola Akinsete, Keith Henry, Jason T. Wotton, Peter W. Carr, Joanne Bartkus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Background. Genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 poses significant public-health and clinical challenges. In North America, subtype B is most prevalent. HIV-1 subtyping is not integrated into routine HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance in the United States. In 2003, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted HIV-1 subtyping with routine surveillance to describe the existence and variety of non-subtype B strains. Methods. Targeted HIV-1 subtype surveillance was conducted on 98 African-born HIV-infected patients. Sentinel subtype surveillance was conducted in a Minneapolis sexually transmitted disease clinic on 28 newly diagnosed non-African HIV-positive patients. Subtype determination was based on a partial sequence of the gp41 region of the HIV-1 env gene. Results. Subtyping was successful for 87 of 98 samples from African-born HIV-infected patients; 95% were non-B subtypes. The 7 subtypes observed were consistent with strains endemic in patients' birth regions. Subtyping was also completed for samples from 25 of 28 non-African-born patients; all were subtype B. Conclusions. Multiple HIV-1 subtypes are present in Minnesota. Our data suggest that most of the HIV cases in Minnesota among African-born patients are non-B subtypes. Population-based surveillance inclusive of groups at high risk for variant strains is needed to monitor the prevalence and variety of HIV subtypes in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-45
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2005

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received 24 September 2004; accepted 28 December 2004; electronically published 27 May 2005. Presented in part: XV International AIDS Conference, 11–16 July 2004, Bangkok, Thailand (abstract MoPeC3427). Financial support: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (cooperative agreement U62/CCU523560-02 for HIV/AIDS surveillance). Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Tracy Sides, Minnesota Dept. of Health, PO Box 9441, Minneapolis, MN 55414-9441 (

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