Patients with human granulocytic anaplasmosis present with fever, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and an elevated aspartate transaminase level. Clinical and histopathologic features of severe disease suggest macrophage activation. Twenty-nine patients with human granulocytic anaplasmosis had higher ferritin, interleukin-10, interleukin-12 p70, and interferon-γ levels than did control subjects matched for age and sex; severity correlated with triglyceride, ferritin, and interleukin-12 p70 levels. Several severely affected patients had cases that fulfilled macrophage activation syndrome diagnostic criteria. Macrophage activation and excessive cytokine production may belie tissue injury associated with Ananplasma phagocytophilum infection.