Renal-transplant recipients are at an increased risk for developing nonmelanomatous skin cancer (NMSC). Recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type has been suggested as a possible risk factor. We studied the association between HLA type and posttransplant NMSC in 2,433 renal-transplant recipients in a Northern climate, for whom HLA type and clinical follow-up were available. One hundred six (4.3%) patients developed NMSC between 1984 and 1997. Of previously reported HLA-associated risk factors, only HLA A11 showed an increased incidence of posttransplant skin cancer, at 8% (P=0.0137, odds ratio 2.03 with 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.53) in 1998. This effect persisted at follow-up, in a limited reanalysis in 2004. HLA A11 may be a useful marker, in some populations, for identifying at the time of transplantation those patients that are at an increased risk for NMSC and who may therefore be good candidates for preventative clinical trials.