Incubation of HIV with human whole, parotid, or submandibular saliva leads to a decrease in viral infectivity in Sup-T1 cells. The effect is most pronounced with submandibular saliva. Inhibition is seen within 2 min, and increases with time. There is little inhibition seen after incubation of saliva with HSV, and no effect with adenovirus, suggested that there is some viral specificity. Electron microscopic studies revealed that HIV-saliva aggregates are trapped in 0.45-μm pore size nitrocellulose filters. If these inhibitory effects are manifest in vivo, this could account for the low level of virus detected in oral secretions.