Current graphene-based plasmonic devices are restricted to 2D patterns defined on planar substrates; thus, they suffer from spatially limited 2D plasmon fields. Here, 3D graphene forming freestanding nanocylinders realized by a plasma-triggered self-assembly process are introduced. The graphene-based nanocylinders induce hybridized edge (in-plane) and radial (out-of-plane) coupled 3D plasmon modes stemming from their curvature, resulting in a four orders of magnitude stronger field at the openings of the cylinders than in rectangular 2D graphene ribbons. For the characterization of the 3D plasmon modes, synchrotron nanospectroscopy measurements are performed, which provides the evidence of preservation of the hybridized 3D graphene plasmons in the high precision curved nanocylinders. The distinct 3D modes introduced in this paper, provide an insight into geometry-dependent 3D coupled plasmon modes and their ability to achieve non-surface-limited (volumetric) field enhancements.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI‐1454293. The authors also acknowledge the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI) at the University of Minnesota for providing computing resources that contributed to the simulation results reported within this paper. Portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the National Science Foundation through the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI) under Award Number ECCS‐2025124. This work was supported partially by the National Science Foundation through the University of Minnesota MRSEC under Award Number DMR‐2011401. Part of this work was carried out in the College of Science and Engineering Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which has received capital equipment funding from the National Science Foundation through the UMN MRSEC under Award Number DMR‐2011401. C.D. acknowledges the support from Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship from University of Minnesota. This research used resources of the Advanced Light Source, a U.S. DOE Office of Science User Facility under contract no. DE‐AC02‐05CH11231.
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