Hydroxychloroquine dosing in immune-mediated diseases: implications for patient safety

Milena A. Gianfrancesco, Gabriela Schmajuk, Sarah Haserodt, Laura Trupin, Zara Izadi, Kashif Jafri, Stephen Shiboski, Marina Sirota, R. Adams Dudley, Jinoos Yazdany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Evidence suggests that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinal toxicity is more common than previously thought. Adhering to careful weight-based dosing can significantly reduce the risk of this adverse event and is recommended in recent guidelines. We used electronic health record data from a large health system to examine HCQ dosing over a 5-year period and identify risk factors associated with higher dosage of HCQ. We constructed a longitudinal, retrospective cohort of patients with HCQ prescriptions (1681 patients with 3490 prescribing events) between 2012 and 2016. We measured HCQ dosing patterns relative to guidelines (<6.5 and <5.0 mg/kg) over time and used longitudinal multivariate mixed effects logistic regression to identify sociodemographic, clinical and health system factors associated with receiving higher than recommended doses of HCQ. The proportion of patients receiving doses above 6.5 mg/kg decreased from 12% in 2012 to 7% by 2016. Similarly, the proportion of patients with doses above 5.0 mg/kg fell from 38% in 2012 to 30% in 2016. Low body weight (<68 kg) was strongly associated with receiving doses of HCQ above 6.5 mg/kg across all time points, even after adjusting for other factors (odds ratios ranging from 13.2 to 21.0). Although the proportion of patients receiving higher than recommended HCQ doses has declined over a period of 5 years, a substantial number of individuals remain at increased risk for toxicity. Given the widespread use of HCQ in immune-mediated diseases, our study suggests that interventions aimed to ensure appropriate dosing are warranted to improve patient safety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1611-1618
Number of pages8
JournalRheumatology International
Volume37
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding This work is supported by AHRQ R01 HS024412 (JY) and NIAMS K23 AR063770 (GS). Dr. Gianfrancesco has received funding from the Rheumatology Research Foundation. Dr. Yazdany is supported by the Robert L. Kroc Endowed Chair in Rheumatic and Connective Tissue Disorders. Drs. Yazdany and Schmajuk are also supported by the Russell/Engleman Medical Research Center for Arthritis. Dr. Sirota is funded in part by the March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center. Dr. Jafri is supported by an NIH T32 grant 5T32AR007304-38. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, or National Institutes of Health.

Funding Information:
We thank Chris Tonner and Dana Ludwig for their technical assistance with this project. This work is supported by AHRQ R01 HS024412 (JY) and NIAMS K23 AR063770 (GS). Dr. Gianfrancesco has received funding from the Rheumatology Research Foundation. Dr. Yazdany is supported by the Robert L. Kroc Endowed Chair in Rheumatic and Connective Tissue Disorders. Drs. Yazdany and Schmajuk are also supported by the Russell/Engleman Medical Research Center for Arthritis. Dr. Sirota is funded in part by the March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center.?Dr. Jafri is supported by an NIH T32 grant 5T32AR007304-38. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, or National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.

Keywords

  • Guidelines
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Patient safety
  • Risk factors

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