Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is one of the most complex congenital heart diseases and requires several cardiac surgeries for survival. The diagnosis is usually established prenatally or shortly after birth. Each stage of surgery poses a unique hemodynamic situation that requires deeper understanding to manage common pediatric problems such as dehydration and respiratory infections. Careful multidisciplinary involvement in the care of these complex patients is improving their outcome; however, morbidity and mortality are still substantial. In this review, we focus on the hemodynamic aspects of various surgical stages that a primary care provider should know to manage these challenging patients.
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© 2019 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.