Researchers have found recreational music making to have positive impacts and that active music-making may have benefits that extend beyond passive music listening or receptive music-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a single 45-min group-based wellness drumming session on the affective states of university students. Participants (N= 50) were undergraduate and graduate university students from a variety of majors. Students in beginning classical guitar classes served as control participants. Experimental participants received a 45-min group-based wellness drumming protocol. The researchers utilized the Quick Mood Scale at pre- and posttest to assess a number of state affective components and collected qualitative data in the form of post-session comments to determine participants' perceptions of the wellness drumming intervention. Results indicated statistically significant between-group posttest differences for wide awake/drowsy, relaxed/anxious, cheerful/depressed, friendly/aggressive, and clear-headed/confused. In all affective variables, the experimental condition had higher posttest means than the control condition. General results of this controlled effectiveness study tended to support the use of group wellness drumming based on the specific wellness drumming protocol for university students. Implications for on-campus wellness programs, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are included.
- Affective state