Background:HIV is produced in lymphoid tissues (LT) and stored on the follicular dendritic cell network in LT. When antiretroviral therapy is started, plasma viremia decays in 2 phases; the first within days of starting therapy and the second over weeks. Raltegravir (RAL), an integrase inhibitor, has been associated with only a single rapid phase of decay, and we speculated this may be due to higher intracellular concentration (IC) of RAL in LT. We have previously measured suboptimal ICs of antiretroviral therapy agents in LT, which were associated with slower decay of both vRNA+ cells and the follicular dendritic cell network pool.Setting:Outpatient clinic at the Joint Clinical Research Center in Kampala, Uganda.Methods:We compared the rate of decay in LT in people starting RAL with those starting efavirenz (EFV).Results:There was no difference in the rate of virus decay in LT. The ratio of the ICs of RAL and EFV in lymph node to the concentration of drug that inhibits 95% of virus in blood was 1 log lower in lymph node for EFV and >3 logs lower for RAL.Conclusion:These data further highlight the challenges of drug delivery to LT in HIV infection and demonstrate that RAL is not superior to EFV as judged by direct measurements of the source of virus in LT.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
From the aDepartment of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; bVaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD; cJoint Clinical Research Center, Kampala, Uganda; Departments of dSurgery; eMicrobiology and Immu-nology; and fBiostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN; and gCollege of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE Supported by an unrestricted grant from Merck, R01-AI124965, and UL1TR000114. No sponsor or funder played a role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
- antiviral effect
- drug levels
- virus decay