The fast growth of interactive games has a great impact on school-based physical activity programs. This study was designed to examine the effects of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) on urban children's exercise correlates (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, social support) and physical activity participation. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DDR on urban school children's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, perceived social support, and daily physical activity levels. A total of 101 participants responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, social support, and 1-week physical activity levels in August 2008 (pretest). Then fourth graders were assigned to the intervention group (3 30-minute DDR sessions/week), while the fifth graders were placed in the comparison group. The outcome variables were measured again in May 2009 (posttest). The MANOVA with difference scores yielded a significant main effect for intervention. Follow-up tests indicated that the intervention children reported significantly greater increased self-efficacy (p < 0.05), social support (p < 0.05), and daily physical activity levels (p < 0.05) than the comparison children over time. The results suggested that the implementation of DDR could have a significantly positive effect on children's self-efficacy, social support, and daily physical activity levels across time. The findings of the study can facilitate health professionals' design of effective interventions to promote urban children's exercise correlates and physical activity levels.
- Outcome expectancy
- Physical activity participation
- Social support