Objective: Anatomic segmentectomy may achieve results comparable to lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. The 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook stratified the previous T1 tumor designation into T1a and T1b subsets, which still define stage 1A node-negative non-small cell lung cancer. We are left to hypothesize whether this classification may aid in directing the extent of surgical resection. We retrospectively reviewed our anatomic segmentectomy and lobectomy management of stage 1A non-small cell lung cancer to determine differences in survival and local recurrence rates based on the new stratification. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 429 patients undergoing resection of pathologically confirmed stage 1A non-small cell lung cancer via lobectomy or anatomic segmentectomy. Primary outcome variables included mortality, recurrence, and survival. Recurrence-free and cancer-specific survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Patients undergoing segmentectomy were older than patients undergoing lobectomy (mean age 69.2 vs 66.8 years, P < .006). The mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second was significantly lower in the segmentectomy group than in the lobectomy group (71.8% vs 81.1%, P = .02). Mortality was similar after segmentectomy (1.1%) and lobectomy (1.2%). There was no difference in mortality, recurrence rates (14.0% vs 14.7%, P = 1.00), or 5-year cancer-specific survival (T1a: 90% vs 91%, P = .984; T1b: 82% vs 78%, P = .892) when comparing segmentectomy and lobectomy for pathologic stage 1A non-small cell lung cancer, when stratified by T stage. Conclusions: Anatomic segmentectomy may achieve equivalent recurrence and survival compared with lobectomy for patients with stage 1A non-small cell lung cancer. Prospective studies will be necessary to delineate the potential merits of anatomic segmentectomy in this setting.