Improved Postfixation Treatment of Glutaraldehyde Fixed Porcine Aortic Valves by Monosodium Glutamate

Kangxiong Liao, Eli Seifter, Darryl Hoffman, Edward L. Yellin, Robert W.M. Frater

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13 Scopus citations


Abstract: The use of bioprosthetic valves remains limited due to poor long‐term durability primarily because of tissue calcification‐associated degeneration. Release of locally cytotoxic residual aldehyde after glutaraldehyde fixation is one of the major causes of this degeneration. In this study, monosodium glutamate was used as postfixation treatment to bind residual aldehyde in order to block its toxic effects. Thirty‐six pieces of fresh porcine aortic valves were fixed by 0.625% glutaraldehyde for 14 days, and then 18 of them were treated with 1% monosodium glutamate for another 3 days before they were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of two groups of rats (n = 9 in each group) for 45 and 90 days, respectively. Retrieved specimens were examined grossly, and calcium analysis and measurements of tissue collagen and water content were carried out. The results showed that, compared with glutaraldehyde fixed specimens, monosodium glutamate postfixation treated specimens had less calcification (calcium 104.93 + 50.94 versus 141.58 ± 58.10 at 45 days and 103.07 ± 76.48 versus 199.33 ± 53.44 at 90 days, μg/mg dry weight, p < 0.01), higher collagen content (hydroxy‐prolines.50 ± 1.29 versus 3.58 ± 1.48 at 45 days and 5.64 ± 0.87 versus 4.25 ± 0.65 at 90 days, μg/mg wet weight, p< 0.01), and higher water content (68.00 ± 6.95% versus 61.33 ± 8.83% at 90 days, p < 0.05) (mean ± SD, paired t test). We conclude that monosodium glutamate couples with residual aldehyde, which significantly reduces calcification of glutaraldehyde fixed porcine aortic valves while preserving a higher tissue collagen and water content after implantation. The preserved tissue collagen and water content of the implants is closer to that of unimplanted native valves.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-272
Number of pages6
JournalArtificial Organs
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1992


  • Anticalcification
  • Collagen content
  • Free aldehyde
  • Monosodium glutamate
  • Porcine aortic valve

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