Primary incisional carcinoma (PIC) is a rare, delayed complication of surgery, usually attributed to the malignant transformation of endometriosis. We report a case of incisional carcinoma with nodal metastases in a 55-year-old woman, 18 years after cesarean section. She underwent extirpative surgery, including hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, without intraperitoneal disease identifed. Adjuvant treatment included sandwiched platinum-based chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) and radiation. She remains disease-free 8 months after completing therapy. We identified 46 additional reported cases. Of these, >90% had undergone an “endometrium-exposing” surgery, most commonly cesarean section; while no cases followed adnexal-only surgery. The median time between antecedent surgery and presentation was 18 years. At presentation, tumors were often large (median 8 cm), and symptomatic with pain (63%) and/or mass (26%). Serum CA125 levels were commonly, albeit slightly, elevated (median 57U/ml (IQR 22–96, Range 6–1690)). Lymph node metastases were common (35%), with most following a vulvar-type spread pattern (inguinal first). Most patients (63%) were treated with chemotherapy +/− radiation. Approximately 50% of patients recurred promptly (median < 6 months), but long-term survival was reported following combined chemotherapy/radiation. Lymph node metastases portended a shorter disease-free interval, with 73% of cases recurring (median 5 months) despite chemotherapy-based treatment. These data suggest that some incisional carcinomas may result from displacement of healthy endometrium followed by delayed malignant transformation. Chemotherapy-only and radiation-only treatments are attended by modest prognosis. Taken together, these data suggest there is both need and potential avenues for improved prevention, detection, and treatment of this condition.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
- Abdominal wall metastases
- Endometrioid carcinoma
- Incisional carcinoma