Nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine] has been shown to delay nitrification and may increase nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency of crops under N loss conditions. Current application recommendations suggest immediate incorporation. With fertilizer N sources such as urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution, immediate incorporation may not be practical. Experiments were conducted with irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) over 3 years to determine if nitrification inhibitor (NI) incorporation and contact with the fertilizer source was essential with urea and UAN to maintain efficacy of nitrapyrin and etridiazol [5-ethoxy-3-(trichloromethyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole]. Nitrogen at a rate of 134 kg ha-1 was broadcast on a Hubbard loamy coarse sand (sandy, mixed Udorthentic Haploboroll) before planting. Nitrification inhibitors were applied at 0.56 kg ha-1 either as coating on urea, mixed with UAN, or applied in a broadcast application separate from the application of the N fertilizer. Incorporation was conducted immediately after NI application. Leaching losses, reduced N availability each year of experimentation. Nitrogen uptake from urea with no NI applied was 26% higher than uptake from UAN and resulted in 11% higher grain yields. Volatilization of urea from either N source was not apparent. Nitrapyrin and etridiazol produced similar increases in N utilization and yield. Incorporation of nitrapyrin and etridiazol was essential to obtain efficacy with both fertilizer sources. Incorporation of both NIs (averaged over NI) increased grain yields 28% with urea and 16% with UAN. Separate applications of NI provided comparable results to application with the fertilizer material if the NI was incorporated immediately.
Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Zea mays L.
- inhibitor incorporation