Increased impulsive choice for saccharin during PCP withdrawal in female monkeys: Influence of menstrual cycle phase

Marilyn E Carroll, Emily A. Kohl, Krista M. Johnson, Rachel M LaNasa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: In previous studies with male and female rhesus monkeys, withdrawal of access to oral phencyclidine (PCP) self-administration reduced responding for food under a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule more in males than females, and with a delay discounting (DD) task with saccharin (SACC) as the reinforcer impulsive choice for SACC increased during PCP withdrawal more in males than females. Objectives: The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of PCP (0.25 or 0.5 mg/ml) withdrawal on impulsive choice for SACC in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and methods: In component 1, PCP and water were available from two drinking spouts for 1.5 h sessions under concurrent FR 16 schedules. In component 2, a SACC solution was available for 45 min under a DD schedule. Monkeys had a choice of one immediate SACC delivery (0.6 ml) or six delayed SACC deliveries, and the delay was increased by 1 s after a response on the delayed lever and decreased by 1 s after a response on the immediate lever. There was then a 10-day water substitution phase, or PCP withdrawal, that occurred during the mid-follicular phase (days 7-11) or the late luteal phase (days 24-28) of the menstrual cycle. Access to PCP and concurrent water was then restored, and the PCP withdrawal procedure was repeated over several follicular and luteal menstrual phases. Results: PCP deliveries were higher during the luteal (vs follicular) phase. Impulsive choice was greater during the luteal (vs follicular) phase during withdrawal of the higher PCP concentration. Conclusions: PCP withdrawal was associated with elevated impulsive choice for SACC, especially in the luteal (vs follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle in female monkeys.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-424
Number of pages12
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013


  • Delay discounting
  • Follicular phase
  • Impulsive choice
  • Luteal phase
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)
  • Rhesus monkeys
  • Saccharin (SACC)
  • Withdrawal

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