Including satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in land-use regression (LUR) models can improve their predictive ability, but requires rigorous evaluation. We used 123 passive NO2 samplers sited to capture within-city and near-road variability in two Australian cities (Sydney and Perth) to assess the validity of annual mean NO2 estimates from existing national satellite-based LUR models (developed with 68 regulatory monitors). The samplers spanned roadside, urban near traffic (≤100 m to a major road), and urban background (>100 m to a major road) locations. We evaluated model performance using R2 (predicted NO2 regressed on independent measurements of NO2), mean-square-error R2 (MSE-R2), RMSE, and bias. Our models captured up to 69% of spatial variability in NO2 at urban near-traffic and urban background locations, and up to 58% of variability at all validation sites, including roadside locations. The absolute agreement of measurements and predictions (measured by MSE-R2) was similar to their correlation (measured by R2). Few previous studies have performed independent evaluations of national satellite-based LUR models, and there is little information on the performance of models developed with a small number of NO2 monitors. We have demonstrated that such models are a valid approach for estimating NO2 exposures in Australian cities. (Graph Presented).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
L.D.K. acknowledges an NHMRC Early Career (Australian Public Health) Fellowship (APP1036620). G.P. acknowledges a Sidney Sax Fellowship (APP1052236) and project grants (APP1099655 and APP1047263) from the NHMRC. J.H. acknowledges an NHMRC project grant (APP1003589). C.T.C. acknowledges funding from the Clean Air Research Programme through the Commonwealth Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts for NO2 sampling during 2006-2008. Please contact the corresponding author to obtain LUR model predictions for research purposes.
© 2016 American Chemical Society.