OBJECTIVES: Surgical strategies to treat drug refractory left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy include septal myectomy (SM) and, less frequently, mitral valve (MV) repair or replacement. The primary aim of this study was to report the surgical technique and management outcomes in a consecutive group of patients with variable phenotypes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a broad national specialist practice. METHODS: A total of 203 consecutive patients, 132 men (mean age 48.6 ± 14.6 years) underwent surgery for the management of LVOTO. Surgical approaches included SM (n = 159), SM with MV repair (n = 25), SM with MV replacement (n = 9) and MV replacement alone (n = 10). Specific surgical approaches were performed based on the underlying mechanism of obstruction. Eleven (5.4%) patients had previous alcohol septal ablation for the management of LVOTO. Concomitant non-mitral cardiac procedures were carried out in 22 (10.8%) patients. RESULTS: Operative survival rate was 99.0% with 2 deaths within 30 days. The mean bypass time was 92.9 ± 47.8min, with a mean length of hospital stay of 10.5 ± 7.8 days. Surgical complications included 3 ventricular septal defects requiring repair (1.5%), 1 Gerbode defect surgically repaired, 2 aortic valve repairs (1.0%), 2 transient ischaemic attacks (1.0%) and 4 strokes (2.0%). Thirty-nine (19.2%) patients had perioperative new-onset atrial fibrillation and 8 (3.9%) patients had unexpected atrioventricular block requiring a permanent pacemaker. Mean resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient improved from 70.6 ± 40.3mmHg preoperatively to 11.0 ± 10.5mmHg at 1 year postoperatively (P < 0.001). Mean New York Heart Association class improved from 2.6 ± 0.5 preoperatively to 1.6 ± 0.6 at 1 year after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: In variable phenotypes of LVOTO in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an individualized surgical approach provided effective reductions in left ventricular outflow tract gradients and good symptomatic relief with acceptable mortality and morbidity.
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© The Author(s) 2017/2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
- Mitral valve intervention
- Septal myectomy