Dipyridamole, which is known to alter platelet function, has also been shown to reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. This latter effect could result from dipyridamole either acting on a platelet-mediated system, or acting directly on pulmonary vascular smooth muscle. To investigate these two possibilities, normal dogs were compared with dogs rendered thrombocytopenic by a platelet antiserum. Compared with the hypoxic pressor response before drug treatment, the hypoxic response following dipyridamole was only 32% as great in the normal dogs and only 38% as great in the thrombocytopenic dogs. Thus, dipyridamole was no less effective in reducing the hypoxic pressor response in the virtual absence of platelets. This supports a direct effect of dipyridamole on pulmonary vascular smooth muscle, which could be mediated by an increase in adenosine levels.