Instructional design and assessment: Tracking patient encounters and clinical skills to determine competency in ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students’ competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Assessment. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Conclusions. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number14
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. All rights reserved.


  • Ambulatory care
  • Assessment
  • Competency
  • Dreyfus model
  • Experiential education

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